The ancient Uttaranchal history goes back to time immemorial. Uttaranchal, now known as Uttarakhand finds its mention in ancient Hindu scriptures. Uttaranchal, truly, has been described as Devbhoomi or the 'Land of the Gods'. This pristine land, divided into two hilly regions of Kumaon and Garhwal, has a number of important pilgrimage sites.
Several archeological excavations establish different facts about Uttaranchal History. It states that Garhwal region was earlier termed as Uttarakhand and formed a part of the Mauryan Empire. On the other hand, evidence of Kumaon's existence in the Stone Age has also been proved. The state has been ruled in turns by various dynasties including the Kushana dynasty, Katyuri Dynasty, Guptas dynasty, the Pauravas, the Palas, and the British etc. Uttaranchal History represents rich and varied sphere of heritage and culture.
Uttarakhand was a part of Uttar Pradesh before coming into being as a separate state on 9 November 2000, when the central government passed the bill and Uttaranchal became the 27th state of Indian union. The state includes 14 hilly districts of former Uttar Pradesh. Garhwal, which falls in the western part of the state, includes the regions of Samprat, Chamoli, Pauri, Uttarkashi and Dehradun. The eastern region, known as the Kumaon region, comprises districts like Almora, Nainital and Pithoragarh.
Uttaranchal Geography is also diverse and wide spread. The state is a part of the Himalayan ranges and is situated at coordinates 30.19" N and 78.04" E in the northwest portion of Uttar Pradesh. The state touches international borders like Tibet and Nepal, whereas it shares its border with Himachal Pradesh and Utter Pradesh in India. Uttaranchal occupies 1.73% of India's total land area with 51,125 sq. km.
An important part of Uttaranchal Geography is that two of India's most holy and mighty rivers Ganga and the Yamuna originate in the glaciers of Uttaranchal. Uttaranchal enjoys two diverse climatic conditions. The plan regions of the state have a tropical climate with hot and humid summers and chilly winters, whereas the hilly regions of Uttaranchal enjoy cool conditions characterized by cold winters with snowfall and mild summers.
Nanda Devi in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal is the highest point in the state at 7,817 m above sea level. A major part of the state comes under rainforests and alpine forests having rare and endangered wildlife species of India.
Uttaranchal History and Geography has lured many tourists to this lovely state with pristine beauty and extraordinary charm.